The Psychology of Forgetting and Why Memory Fails (2022)

Forgetting is an all too common part of daily life. Sometimes these memory slips are simple and fairly innocuous, such as forgetting to return a phone call. Other times, forgetting can be much more dire and even have serious consequences, such as an eyewitness forgetting important details about a crime.

Memory failures are an almost daily occurrence. Forgetting is so common that you probably rely on numerous methods to help you remember important information, such as jotting down notes in a daily planner or scheduling important events on your phone's calendar.

As you are frantically searching for your missing car keys, it may seem that the information about where you left them is permanently gone from your memory. However, forgetting is generally not about actually losing or erasing this information from your long-term memory.

Forgetting typically involves a failure in memory retrieval. While the information is somewhere in your long-term memory, you are not able to actually retrieve and remember it.

Why Time Plays a Key Role in Forgetting

Psychologist Hermann Ebbinghaus was one of the first to scientifically study forgetting. In experiments where he used himself as the subject, Ebbinghaus tested his memory using three-letter nonsense syllables. He relied on such nonsense words because using previously known words would have involved drawing on his existing knowledge and associations in his memory.

In order to test for new information, Ebbinghaus tested his memory for periods of time ranging from 20 minutes to 31 days. He then published his findings in 1885 in Memory: A Contribution to Experimental Psychology.

His results, plotted in what is known as the Ebbinghaus forgetting curve, revealed a relationship between forgetting and time. Initially, information is often lost very quickly after it is learned. Factors such as how the information was learned and how frequently it was rehearsed play a role in how quickly these memories are lost. Information stored in long-term memory is surprisingly stable.

(Video) How memories form and how we lose them - Catharine Young

The forgetting curve also showed that forgetting does not continue to decline until all of the information is lost. At a certain point, the amount of forgetting levels off.

How to Measure Forgetting

Sometimes it might seem that information has been forgotten, but even a subtle cue can help trigger the memory. Imagine the last time you took an exam for school. While you might have initially felt forgetful and unprepared, seeing the information presented on the test probably helped cue the retrieval of information you might not have known you even remembered.

So how do we know when something has been forgotten? There are a few different ways to measure this:

  • Recall: People who have been asked to memorize something, such as a list of terms, might be asked to recall the list from memory. By seeing how many items are remembered, researchers are able to identify how much information has been forgotten. This method might involve the use of free recall (recalling items without hints) or prompted recall (utilizing hints to trigger memories).
  • Recognition: This method involves identifying information that was previously learned. On a test, for example, students might have to recognize which terms they learned about in a chapter of their assigned reading.

Theories About Why We Forget

Of course, many factors can contribute to forgetting. Sometimes you might be distracted when you learn new information, which might mean that you never truly retain the information long enough to remember it later. Well-known memory researcher Elizabeth Loftus has proposed four key explanations for why forgetting occurs. These have led to some major theories of forgetting.

The Interference Theory

What did you have for dinner Tuesday night of last week? Is that difficult to recall? If someone had asked you that question Wednesday morning, you probably would have had no problem recalling what you had for dinner the night before.

But as intervening days pass, the memories of all the other meals you have eaten since then start to interfere with your memory of that one particular meal. This is a good example of what psychologists call the interference theory of forgetting.

(Video) Memory Errors, Forgetting, and Learning

According to interference theory, forgetting is the result of different memories interfering with one another. The more similar two or more events are to one another, the more likely interference will occur.

It is difficult to remember what happened on an average school day two months ago because so many other days have occurred since then. Unique and distinctive events, however, are less likely to suffer from interference. Your high school graduation, wedding, and the birth of your first child are much more likely to be recalled because they are singular events—days like no other.

Interference also plays a role in what is known as the serial position effect, or the tendency to recall the first and last items of a list. For example, imagine that you wrote down a shopping list but forgot to take it with you to the store. In all likelihood, you will probably be able to easily recall the first and last items on your list, but you might forget many of the items that were in the middle.

The first thing you wrote down and the last thing you wrote down stand out as being more distinct, while the fourth item and seventh item might seem so similar that they interfere with each other. There are two basic types of interference that can occur:

  • Retroactive interference happens when newly acquired information interferes with old memories. For example, a teacher learning the names of her new class of students at the start of a school year might find it more difficult to recall the names of the students in her class last year. The new information interferes with the old information.
  • Proactive interference occurs when previously learned information makes it more difficult to form new memories. Learning a new phone number or locker combination might be more difficult, for example, because your memories of your old phone number and combination interfere with the new information.

Eliminating interference altogether is impossible, but there are a few things you can do to minimize its effects. One of the best things you can do is rehearse new information in order to better commit it to memory. In fact, many experts recommend overlearning important information, which involves rehearsing the material over and over again until it can be reproduced perfectly with no errors.

Another tactic to fight interference is to switch up your routine and avoid studying similar material back to back. For example, don't try to study vocabulary terms for your Spanish language class right after studying terms for your German class. Break up the material and switch to a completely different subject each study session.

Sleep also plays an essential role in memory formation. Researchers suggest thatsleeping after you learn something new is one of the best ways to turn new memories into lasting ones.

(Video) Forgetting class in malayalam For K TET EXAM|Psychology Forgetting മറവി|എളുപ്പം മനസിലാക്കാം|audiopsc

The Decay Theory of Forgetting

According to the trace theory of memory, physical and chemical changes in the brain results in a memory "trace." Information in short-term memory lasts several seconds and if it is not rehearsed, the neurochemical memory trace quickly fades. According to the trace decay theory of forgetting, the events that happen between the formation of a memory and the recall of the memory have no impact on recall.

Trace theory proposes that the length of time between the memory and recalling that information determines whether the information will be retained or forgotten. If the time interval is short, more information will be recalled. If a longer period of time passes, more information will be forgotten and memory will be poorer.

The idea that memories fade over time is hardly new. The Greek philosopher Plato suggested such a thing more than 2,500 years ago. Later, experimental research by psychologists such as Ebbinghaus bolstered this theory.

One of the problems with this theory is that it is difficult to demonstrate that time alone is responsible for declines in recall. In real-world situations, many things happen between the formation of a memory and the recall of that information. A student who learns something in class, for example, might have hundreds of unique and individual experiences between learning that information and having to recall it on an exam.

Was forgetting the date that the American Revolutionary War began due to the length of time between learning the date in your American History class and being tested on it? Or did the multitude of information acquired during that interval of time play a role? Testing this can be exceedingly difficult. It is nearly impossible to eliminate all the information that might have an influence on the creation of the memory and the recall of the memory.

Another problem with decay theory is it does not account for why some memories fade quickly while others linger. Novelty is one factor that plays a role. For example, you are more likely to remember your very first day of college than all of the intervening days between it and graduation. That first day was new and exciting, but all the following days probably seem quite similar to each other.

The Retrieval Failure Theory

Sometimes the memories are there, but we just can't seem to access them. Two of the basic reasons for this failure in memory retrieval are related to encoding failures and lack of retrieval cues.

(Video) Learning and Memory: How it Works and When it Fails

A common reason why we don't remember information is because it never made it into long-term memory in the first place.

Try this well-known demonstration first used by researchers Nickerson and Adams. From memory, try to draw the back side of a penny. Once you are done, compare your drawing to an actual penny.

Are you surprised by how poorly you recalled what the back of a penny looks like? While you probably had a good idea about the overall shape and color, the actual details were probably pretty fuzzy. Why?

Since you don't actually need to know what the back of a penny looks like to differentiate it from other coins, you only really focus on the information you do need—the overall size, shape, and color of the coin. You aren't able to recall what the back of a penny really looks like because that information was never really encoded into memory in the first place.

The Cue-Dependent Theory of Forgetting

Other researchers have suggested that sometimes information is actually present in memory, but that it cannot be recalled unless retrieval cues are present. These cues are elements that were present at the time that the actual memory was encoded.

For example, remembering the details of your first date with your spouse might be easier if you smell the same scent that your partner was wearing on that first date. The retrieval cue (the scent) was present when that memory was created, so smelling it again can trigger the retrieval of those memories.

A Word From Verywell

Forgetting is simply a part of life. Numerous theories explain how and why we forget. In many situations, several of these explanations might account for why we cannot remember. The passage of time can make memories more difficult to access, while the abundance of information vying for our attention can create competition between old and new memories. Still, we can work to become better at recalling information.

(Video) Introduction to Psychology:6.3 - Memory- Forgetting

Proven Techniques to Improve Your Memory

FAQs

What is memory failure in psychology? ›

Amnesia is the inability to remember events from the past because of a psychological trauma ( psychogenic amnesia) or a physiological trauma ( organic amnesia), such as brain damage resulting from a blow to the head. The memory loss is usually limited to a specific period.

What are the reasons of forgetting in psychology? ›

7 common causes of forgetfulness
  • Lack of sleep. Not getting enough sleep is perhaps the greatest unappreciated cause of forgetfulness. ...
  • Medications. ...
  • Underactive thyroid. ...
  • Alcohol. ...
  • Stress and anxiety. ...
  • Depression.
22 Feb 2013

What is theory of forgetting in psychology? ›

According to the trace decay theory of forgetting, the events between learning and recall have no affect whatsoever on recall. It is the length of time the information has to be retained that is important. The longer the time, the more the memory trace decays and as a consequence more information is forgotten.

What are the causes of memory failures? ›

Possible causes of reversible memory loss include:
  • Medications. Certain medications or a combination of medications can cause forgetfulness or confusion.
  • Minor head trauma or injury. ...
  • Emotional disorders. ...
  • Alcoholism. ...
  • Vitamin B-12 deficiency. ...
  • Hypothyroidism. ...
  • Brain diseases. ...
  • Sleep Apnea.

What are three common memory failures? ›

Types of memory failure
  • Transience.
  • Absent-mindedness.
  • Blocking.
  • Misattribution.
  • Suggestibility.
  • Bias.
  • Persistence.

What are the four types of forgetting? ›

The four main theories of forgetting apparent in the study of psychology are as follows:
  • Cue-dependent forgetting.
  • Organic causes.
  • Interference theories.
  • Trace decay theory.

What are 5 theories of forgetting? ›

There are five popular theories of forgetting in psychology. They are trace decay theory, retrieval failure theory, interference theory, consolidation theory, and displacement theory.

What are the types of forgetting in psychology? ›

The five theories of forgetting include: Displacement theory. Trace decay theory. Interference theory.

How can we stop forgetting psychology? ›

How to Prevent Forgetting
  1. Aim for mastery, not relative performance. ...
  2. Eliminate multiple choice questions. ...
  3. Use contextual clues. ...
  4. Work digitally and save often. ...
  5. Quiz instead of review to enhance memory for lists. ...
  6. To prevent forgetting, ask “why.”
9 May 2016

What is the relationship between memory and forgetting? ›

According to Wikipedia "Forgetting or disremembering is a clear loss or modification of information already encoded and stored in an individual's long-term memory, it is an intuitive or gradual process in which old memories cannot recall from memory storage." In simple words, forgetting is an inability to remember.

What is it called when you forget things easily? ›

Brain trauma, or a brain disease, can lead to a severe form of forgetfulness called amnesia. Typical patients either forget information from their past, are unable to make new memories, or experience both types.

Why can't I remember things from my past? ›

Severe stress, depression, a vitamin B12 deficiency, too little or too much sleep, some prescription drugs and infections can all play a role. Even if those factors don't explain your memory lapses, you don't need to simply resign yourself to memory loss as you age.

What is the best medication for memory loss? ›

Cholinesterase inhibitors are the first choice of treatment for memory loss. The doctor may also prescribe the single-dose drug combination Namzeric to treat moderate to severe memory loss.

What are the symptoms of memory failure? ›

10 Early Signs and Symptoms of Alzheimer's
  • Memory loss that disrupts daily life. ...
  • Challenges in planning or solving problems. ...
  • Difficulty completing familiar tasks. ...
  • Confusion with time or place. ...
  • Trouble understanding visual images and spatial relationships. ...
  • New problems with words in speaking or writing.

Why do we forget some things and not others? ›

In this way, we remember some events and not others because our brain tends to reject what is unnecessary and to keep what really matters. By way of protection, our memory tends to remember the good and the positive in order to remove from our mind the negative events that cause us pain.

Why do I forget things so quickly? ›

Forgetfulness

Forgetfulness
Forgetfulness can be a normal part of aging. As people get older, changes occur in all parts of the body, including the brain. As a result, some people may notice that it takes longer to learn new things, they don't remember information as well as they did, or they lose things like their glasses.
https://www.nia.nih.gov › health › do-memory-problems-alwa...
can arise from stress, depression, lack of sleep or thyroid problems. Other causes include side effects from certain medicines, an unhealthy diet or not having enough fluids in your body (dehydration). Taking care of these underlying causes may help resolve your memory problems.

What is Hyperthymesia syndrome? ›

: the uncommon ability that allows a person to spontaneously recall with great accuracy and detail a vast number of personal events or experiences and their associated dates : highly superior autobiographical memory People with hyperthymesia

hyperthymesia
Hyperthymesia, or highly superior autobiographical memory (HSAM), is a condition that leads people to be able to remember an abnormally large number of their life experiences in vivid detail. It is extraordinarily rare, with only 62 people in the world having been diagnosed with the condition as of 2021.
https://en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Hyperthymesia
can recall almost every day of their lives in near perfect detail, as well as ...

What kinds of memory failures are the most common? ›

Failures were coded into several subcategories of retrospective memory, prospective memory, and absent-minded lapses. It was prospective memory lapses that were overall the most common, serious and consequential ones.

What are the 7 types of forgetting? ›

I suggest that we can distinguish at least seven types: repressive erasure; prescriptive forgetting; forgetting that is constitutive in the formation of a new identity; structural amnesia; forgetting as annulment; forgetting as planned obsolescence; forgetting as humiliated silence.

Where does a thought go when it's forgotten? ›

The hippocampus is thought to be the place where some memories are first stored. Over time, these memories may then be stored in other parts of the brain, namely the neocortex.

Are Forgotten memories still in your brain? ›

For anyone who's ever forgotten something or someone they wish they could remember, a bit of solace: Though the memory is hidden from your conscious mind, it might not be gone. In a study of college students, brain imaging detected patterns of activation that corresponded to memories the students thought they'd lost.

What parts of the brain affect memory? ›

For explicit memories – which are about events that happened to you (episodic), as well as general facts and information (semantic) – there are three important areas of the brain: the hippocampus, the neocortex and the amygdala. Implicit memories, such as motor memories, rely on the basal ganglia and cerebellum.

What are three processes involved in forgetting? ›

The currently known mechanisms for active forgetting include neurogenesis-based forgetting, interference-based forgetting, and intrinsic forgetting, the latter term describing the brain's chronic signaling systems that function to slowly degrade molecular and cellular memory traces.

What are the two types of forgetting memory? ›

Retrograde amnesia occurs when we are no longer able to remember things that happened before the amnesia. Anterograde amnesia occurs when we lose the ability to form new memories.

What do you call someone who forgets everything? ›

careless, distracted, inattentive, sloppy, unmindful, absent, absent-minded, abstracted, airheaded, amnesic, bemused, dreamy, heedless, lax, mooning, moony, neglectful, negligent, nirvanic, oblivious.

How can I restore my memory? ›

Advertisement
  1. Include physical activity in your daily routine. Physical activity increases blood flow to your whole body, including your brain. ...
  2. Stay mentally active. ...
  3. Socialize regularly. ...
  4. Get organized. ...
  5. Sleep well. ...
  6. Eat a healthy diet. ...
  7. Manage chronic conditions.

At what age does memory decline? ›

Almost 40% of us will experience some form of memory loss after we turn 65 years old. But even if we experience memory loss, chances are still unlikely that we have dementia. For the most part, our memory loss is mild enough that we can still live our day-to-day lives without interruption.

What are the 3 theories of memory? ›

Three Main Theories That Explain How We Remember are: 1. Theory of General Memory Process 2. Information-processing Theories

Information-processing Theories
The information processing theory simplified is comparing the human brain to a computer or basic processor. It is theorized that the brain works in a set sequence, as does a computer. The sequence goes as follows, "receives input, processes the information, and delivers an output".
https://en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Information_processing_theory
3. Levels of Processing Theory.

What are the factors that affect memory? ›

Here are several common factors that can affect your memory:
  • Lack of sleep. Not getting enough sleep is a major factor of memory loss and forgetfulness. ...
  • Stress and anxiety. Everyone experiences a certain amount of stress and anxiety. ...
  • Depression. ...
  • Thyroid problems. ...
  • Vitamin B12 deficiency. ...
  • Alcohol abuse. ...
  • Medication.

What is one of the first signs of cognitive decline? ›

Forgetting appointments and dates. Forgetting recent conversations and events. Feeling increasingly overwhelmed by making decisions and plans. Having a hard time understanding directions or instructions.

Why do I forget what I'm saying mid sentence? ›

The answer is you are likely to have been “dual-tasking” just before speaking. It might have been because you were thinking about the words you wanted to say and something else at the same time. Or maybe you were concentrating on listening while trying to think of what to say.

How do you test for memory loss? ›

MRI uses a powerful magnetic field, radio frequency pulses, and a computer to produce detailed pictures of organs, soft tissues, bones, and virtually all other internal body structures. Doctors may order an MRI scan of the head to rule out other conditions that can cause memory loss, such as tumors or infections.

Why doesn't my brain retain information? ›

After reading, you may find it almost impossible to retain the information acquired. It may be due to lack of adequate sleep and rest, distractions while reading, poor nutrition, failure to choose the right book, or memory issues such as decay or shallow processing.

Can't remember things from 5 years ago? ›

Childhood or infantile amnesia, the loss of memories from the first several years of life, is normal, so if you don't remember much from early childhood, you're most likely in the majority.

At what age does memory start? ›

On average the earliest memories that people can recall point back to when they were just two-and-a-half years old, a new study suggests. On average the earliest memories that people can recall point back to when they were just two-and-a-half years old, a new study suggests.

What are the 3 foods that fight memory loss? ›

What are the foods that fight memory loss? Berries, fish, and leafy green vegetables are 3 of the best foods that fight memory loss. There's a mountain of evidence showing they support and protect brain health.

Does B12 help with memory? ›

Vitamin B12

Scientists have long been researching the relationship between low levels of B12 (cobalamin) and memory loss. However, if you get an adequate amount of B12, there is no evidence that higher intake has positive effects.

Can forgetfulness be cured? ›

There's no cure for some causes of short-term memory loss, including dementia from Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, and Alzheimer's disease. However, there are medications that may help to slow progression and ease your symptoms, including short-term memory loss.

Which fruit is best for brain? ›

Fruits. Certain fruits such as oranges, bell peppers, guava, kiwi, tomatoes, and strawberries, contain high amounts of vitamin C. Vitamin C helps prevent brain cells from becoming damaged and supports overall brain health. In fact, a study found that vitamin C can potentially prevent Alzheimer's.

Why is it difficult for some people to remember things? ›

Trouble with total recall can come from many physical and mental conditions not related to aging, like dehydration, infections, and stress. Other causes include medications, substance abuse, poor nutrition, depression, anxiety, and thyroid imbalance.

How can people improve their memory? ›

Crosswords, word-recall games, Tetris, and even mobile apps dedicated to memory training are excellent ways to strengthen memory. A study that included 42 adults with mild cognitive impairment found that playing games on a brain-training app for 8 hours over a 4-week period improved performance in memory tests ( 23 ).

Where is memory stored in the brain? ›

Memories are stored in a region of the brain called the hippocampus, shown in red in this computer illustration. Photo Researchers, Inc.

What is memory according to psychology? ›

Memory is today defined in psychology as the faculty of encoding, storing, and retrieving information (Squire, 2009). Psychologists have found that memory includes three important categories: sensory, short-term, and long-term.

What are the different types of memory loss? ›

There are multiple types of amnesia, including the following:
  • Retrograde amnesia. When you have retrograde amnesia, you lose existing, previously made memories. ...
  • Anterograde amnesia. ...
  • Transient global amnesia (TGA) ...
  • Infantile or childhood amnesia. ...
  • Dissociative amnesia. ...
  • Post-traumatic amnesia (PTA) ...
  • Drug-induced amnesia.

What is it called when you lose your memory? ›

Amnesia refers to the loss of memories, such as facts, information and experiences. Though forgetting your identity is a common plot device in movies and television, that's not generally the case in real-life amnesia. Instead, people with amnesia — also called amnestic syndrome — usually know who they are.

Which of the following is an example of retrieval failure? ›

an example is of retrieval failure is, needing a pen, going upstairs, and then forgetting what you were doing.

What is the relationship between memory and forgetting? ›

Forgetting typically involves a failure in memory retrieval. While the information is somewhere in your long-term memory, you are not able to actually retrieve and remember it.

What affects memory Psychology? ›

Your personal experiences, beliefs, knowledge and mood affect your memories and perceptions when they're being encoded in your brain. This means that when you retrieve a memory, your mood and other biases at that moment can influence what information you actually recall.

What are the 3 stages of memory in psychology? ›

The brain has three types of memory processes: sensory register, short-term memory, and long-term memory.

Why do I forget things so quickly? ›

Forgetfulness

Forgetfulness
Forgetfulness can be a normal part of aging. As people get older, changes occur in all parts of the body, including the brain. As a result, some people may notice that it takes longer to learn new things, they don't remember information as well as they did, or they lose things like their glasses.
https://www.nia.nih.gov › health › do-memory-problems-alwa...
can arise from stress, depression, lack of sleep or thyroid problems. Other causes include side effects from certain medicines, an unhealthy diet or not having enough fluids in your body (dehydration). Taking care of these underlying causes may help resolve your memory problems.

Which part of brain is responsible for memory? ›

Hippocampus. A curved seahorse-shaped organ on the underside of each temporal lobe, the hippocampus is part of a larger structure called the hippocampal formation. It supports memory, learning, navigation and perception of space.

Which fruit is best for brain? ›

Fruits. Certain fruits such as oranges, bell peppers, guava, kiwi, tomatoes, and strawberries, contain high amounts of vitamin C. Vitamin C helps prevent brain cells from becoming damaged and supports overall brain health. In fact, a study found that vitamin C can potentially prevent Alzheimer's.

What is Hyperthymesia syndrome? ›

: the uncommon ability that allows a person to spontaneously recall with great accuracy and detail a vast number of personal events or experiences and their associated dates : highly superior autobiographical memory People with hyperthymesia

hyperthymesia
Hyperthymesia, or highly superior autobiographical memory (HSAM), is a condition that leads people to be able to remember an abnormally large number of their life experiences in vivid detail. It is extraordinarily rare, with only 62 people in the world having been diagnosed with the condition as of 2021.
https://en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Hyperthymesia
can recall almost every day of their lives in near perfect detail, as well as ...

How do you fix memory loss? ›

Advertisement
  1. Include physical activity in your daily routine. Physical activity increases blood flow to your whole body, including your brain. ...
  2. Stay mentally active. ...
  3. Socialize regularly. ...
  4. Get organized. ...
  5. Sleep well. ...
  6. Eat a healthy diet. ...
  7. Manage chronic conditions.

What is one of the first signs of cognitive decline? ›

Forgetting appointments and dates. Forgetting recent conversations and events. Feeling increasingly overwhelmed by making decisions and plans. Having a hard time understanding directions or instructions.

At which stage can memory failure occur? ›

The memory process occurs in three stages: encoding, storage, and retrieval. Conditions present during each of these stages affect the quality of the memory, and breakdowns at any of these points can cause memory failure.

How can we stop forgetting psychology? ›

How to Prevent Forgetting
  1. Aim for mastery, not relative performance. ...
  2. Eliminate multiple choice questions. ...
  3. Use contextual clues. ...
  4. Work digitally and save often. ...
  5. Quiz instead of review to enhance memory for lists. ...
  6. To prevent forgetting, ask “why.”
9 May 2016

What are the types of forgetting in psychology? ›

The five theories of forgetting include: Displacement theory. Trace decay theory. Interference theory.

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